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Table 7. Data collected from the field experiments and existing studies: (a) Forwarder hauling. Reprinted with kind permission from Springer Science + Business Media: Journal of Forest Research, Cost, energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) effectiveness of a harvesting and transporting system for residual forest biomass. 7(3), 2002, 157–163. Yoshioka, T, Aruga, K, Sakai, H, Kobayashi, H, Nitami, T, Table 1(a). © 2002, Springer Japan. Reprinted from Biomass and Bioenergy, 30(4), Proceedings of the third annual workshop of Task 31 'Systainable production systems for bioenergy: Impacts on forest resources and utilization of wood for energy' October 2003, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, Yoshioka et al., A case study on the costs and the fuel consumption of harvesting, transporting, and chipping chains for logging residues in Japan, 342–348, Copyright (2006), with permission from Elsevier.

1In Chapter 4, thoroughly dried biomass is considered in order to discuss the potential energy of logging residues.
2One cycle consists of the four element operations, i.e., loading in the forest, running downward fully-loaded on a strip road, unloading alongside a forest road, and running upward with no load.
3From a previous personal communication (see Chapter 3).
4From the machine price (Forest Mechanization Society (ed.) 1996) and the standard productivity list (Umeda et al. 1982).
5From Sakai (1987).
6The weight of slashes hauled in the experiment was 249.80 kg on a green-weight basis, and the average water content of seven samples of slashes was 119.3% (dry basis, and the standard deviation = 10.9%). Therefore, the dry weight of slashes hauled per cycle was calculated as 113.9 kgDM/cycle.

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