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Table 8. Data collected from the field experiments and existing studies: (b) Truck transporting.1 Reprinted with kind permission from Springer Science + Business Media: Journal of Forest Research, Cost, energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) effectiveness of a harvesting and transporting system for residual forest biomass. 7(3), 2002, 157–163. Yoshioka, T, Aruga, K, Sakai, H, Kobayashi, H, Nitami, T, Table 1(b). © 2002, Springer Japan. Reprinted from Biomass and Bioenergy, 30(4), Proceedings of the third annual workshop of Task 31 'Systainable production systems for bioenergy: Impacts on forest resources and utilization of wood for energy' October 2003, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, Yoshioka et al., A case study on the costs and the fuel consumption of harvesting, transporting, and chipping chains for logging residues in Japan, 342–348, Copyright (2006), with permission from Elsevier.

1Considering the present-day situation of Japanese forestry; a truck with 4 tons of load capacity whose average volume of transported logs was 5 m3 (Nitami and Kamiizaka 1982) was used in Chapter 4.
2Truck transporting is assumed to be conducted on contract by a transport company, in accordance with Umeda et al. (1982). Therefore, from 4 tons of the tonnage and 20–80 km of the transporting distance defined in this chapter, the transporting cost per cycle was 141.04–279.24 US$/cycle on the basis of the price list provided by the Kanto District Land Transport Bureau.
3345.0 kgDM of slashes was to 5 m3 of logs what 381.6 kgDM of slashes was to 5.53 m3 of logs (see Chapter 3).

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