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Table 9. Data collected from the field experiments and existing studies: (c) Chipper comminuting. Reprinted with kind permission from Springer Science + Business Media: Journal of Forest Research, Cost, energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) effectiveness of a harvesting and transporting system for residual forest biomass. 7(3), 2002, 157–163. Yoshioka, T, Aruga, K, Sakai, H, Kobayashi, H, Nitami, T, Table 1(c). © 2002, Springer Japan. Reprinted from Biomass and Bioenergy, 30(4), Proceedings of the third annual workshop of Task 31 'Systainable production systems for bioenergy: Impacts on forest resources and utilization of wood for energy' October 2003, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, Yoshioka et al., A case study on the costs and the fuel consumption of harvesting, transporting, and chipping chains for logging residues in Japan, 342–348, Copyright (2006), with permission from Elsevier.

1In Chapter 4, the "volume reduction rate" by chipper comminuting indicates the extent to which a chipper can reduce the volume of slashes by comminuting them. In other words, it is the ratio of the volume of chips (after comminuting) to that of slashes (before commenting).
2From the machine price of 75,829 US$ (personal communication) and assuming that the yearly operation hours, the life of the machine, and the annual interest were 1,000 h per year, 5 years, and 3%, respectively, the machine cost per h was 22.48 US$/h on the basis of the simplified FAO cost calculation method (1974).
3The fuel cost was based on the same cost calculation factors as that used for the forwarder hauling.
4The volume of slashes before comminuting and that of chips after comminuting were 4.386 m3 and 1.20 m3, respectively (the former was determined by measuring the volume of a container of a 2-ton truck, and the latter was determined by measuring the volume of a chip bin). Therefore, the "volume reduction rate" was calculated as 0.274.
5From the machine price of 473,934 US$ (Forest Mechanization Society (ed.) 1996), the total cost was based on the same cost calculation factors as for the comminuting by a mobile chipper.

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