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Table 10. The harvesting cost and the fuel consumption in each of the three systems, including the harvesting cost per MWh of bioenergy, the "energy input rate," and the preliminary sensitivity analysis. Reprinted with kind permission from Springer Science + Business Media: Journal of Forest Research, Cost, energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) effectiveness of a harvesting and transporting system for residual forest biomass. 7(3), 2002, 157–163. Yoshioka, T, Aruga, K, Sakai, H, Kobayashi, H, Nitami, T, Table 2. © 2002, Springer Japan. Reprinted from Biomass and Bioenergy, 30(4), Proceedings of the third annual workshop of Task 31 'Systainable production systems for bioenergy: Impacts on forest resources and utilization of wood for energy' October 2003, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, Yoshioka et al., A case study on the costs and the fuel consumption of harvesting, transporting, and chipping chains for logging residues in Japan, 342–348, Copyright (2006), with permission from Elsevier.

1The calorific value expected to be obtained from Mg of the dried Cryptomeria japonica D. Don = 19.54 GJ/Mg = 5.428 MWh/Mg (1 MWh = 3.6 GJ) (Klass 1998).
2The "energy input rate" is defined as the ratio of the energy input for harvesting to the energy output of logging residues (see Chapter 3).
3The calorific value of 1 dm3 of light oil = 38.49 MJ/dm3 = 10.69 kWh/dm3.
4In Chapter 4, as a preliminary sensitivity analysis, the shift in transporting from a 4-ton truck on contract by a transport company to purchasing a 18-ton pulp chip trailer with a cubic capacity of 60 m3 and employing a driver is considered (in Japan, trailers of this class are used mainly by pulp mills). To what extent the total harvesting costs are reduced by the shift is examined.

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