Table 13. Basic data on a biomass-fired power generation plant.(1) Reprinted with kind permission from Springer Science + Business Media: Journal of Forest Research, Energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) balance of logging residues as alternative energy resources: System analysis based on the method of a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. 10(2), 2005, 125–134. Yoshioka, T, Aruga, K, Nitami, T, Kobayashi, H, Sakai, H, Table 1. © 2005, Springer Japan. (1)The scale of the plant discussed in Chapter 6 is based on a survey by Ogi et al. (2002) of nine biomass-fired power generation plants, which were in operation in Japan as of 2002. The average values of the net power output and thermal efficiency of the nine plants surveyed were 3 MW and 12%, respectively. The plant is supposed to be in operation 24 h per day and 256 days per year (the annual rate of operation is 70%), and the life of the plant is 30 years.
(2)The generated electricity per year corresponds to the annual energy output from the system.
(3)The generated electricity is calculated from the net power output, hours of operation per day, and days of operation per year as: 3 [MW] × 24 [h/d] × 256 [d/y] = 18,432 [MWhe/y].
(4)The necessary amount of logging residues per hour is calculated from the net power output and thermal efficiency as: 3 [MW] × 3.6 [GJ/MWh]/0.12/18.2 [GJ/MgDM] = 4.9 [MgDM/h]; where 3.6 GJ/MWh is the conversion coefficient, and 18.2 GJ/MgDM is the calorific value of logging residues considering 15% of the water content (dry basis) (Klass 1998). The annual required amount is then calculated as: 4.9 [MgDM/h] × 24 [h/d] × 256 [d/y] = 30,106 [MgDM/y].
(5)The number of the plants is calculated from 3.0 Tg/y of the annual potential of logging residues in Japan (Yoshioka et al. 2006a) and 30,106 MgDM/y of the annual required amount per plant.
(6)The area that one plant covers is assumed to form a circle. When the plant is in the center of a circle, the theoretical average transportation distance is two-thirds of the radius of the circle (Sundberg and Silversides 1988). The practical average transportation distance is supposed to be 20% greater than the theoretical one (Börjesson and Gustavsson 1996).

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