**Table 13.** Basic data on a biomass-fired power generation
plant.^{(1)} Reprinted with kind permission from Springer Science
+ Business Media: *Journal of Forest
Research*, Energy and carbon dioxide
(CO_{2}) balance of logging residues as
alternative energy resources: System analysis based on the method of a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis.
**10**(2), 2005, 125–134. Yoshioka, T, Aruga, K, Nitami, T, Kobayashi, H, Sakai, H, Table 1. © 2005, Springer Japan.

^{(1)}The scale of the plant discussed in Chapter 6 is based on a survey by Ogi
*et al*. (2002) of nine biomass-fired power
generation plants, which were in operation in Japan as of 2002. The average values of the net power output and thermal efficiency
of the nine plants surveyed were 3 MW and 12%, respectively. The plant is supposed to be in operation 24 h per day and 256
days per year (the annual rate of operation is 70%), and the life of the plant is 30 years.

^{(2)}The generated electricity per year corresponds to the annual energy output from the system.

^{(3)}The generated electricity is calculated from the net power output, hours of operation per day, and days of operation per
year as: 3 [MW] × 24 [h/d] × 256 [d/y] = 18,432
[MWh_{e}/y].

^{(4)}The necessary amount of logging residues per hour is calculated from the net power output and thermal efficiency as:
3 [MW] × 3.6 [GJ/MWh]/0.12/18.2 [GJ/MgDM] = 4.9 [MgDM/h]; where 3.6 GJ/MWh is the conversion coefficient, and
18.2 GJ/MgDM is the calorific value of logging residues considering 15% of the water content (dry basis) (Klass 1998).
The annual required amount is then calculated as: 4.9 [MgDM/h]
× 24 [h/d] × 256 [d/y] = 30,106 [MgDM/y].

^{(5)}The number of the plants is calculated from 3.0 Tg/y of the annual potential of logging residues in Japan (Yoshioka
*et al*. 2006a) and 30,106 MgDM/y of the annual required amount per plant.

^{(6)}The area that one plant covers is assumed to form a circle. When the plant is in the center of a circle, the theoretical
average transportation distance is two-thirds of the radius of the circle (Sundberg and Silversides 1988). The practical average
transportation distance is supposed to be 20% greater than the theoretical one (Börjesson and Gustavsson 1996).

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