|Monogr. Environ. Earth Planets, Vol. 6 (No. 1), pp. 1-92, 2018||doi:10.5047/meep.2018.00601.0001 ISSN: 2186-4853|
MSJ member, AMS emeritus member
(Received February 7, 2018; Revised June 7, 2018; Accepted June 11, 2018; Online published December 28, 2018)
Citation: Yamasaki, M. (2018), Toward a better understanding of the moist atmosphere: Cooperative interaction between moist convection and the larger-scale, Monogr. Environ. Earth Planets, 6, 1–92, doi:10.5047/meep.2018.00601.0001.
Abstract: The author's understanding of atmospheric phenomena in which moist convection plays an important role is described, based on the studies made by the author and other researchers in these 50 years. The atmospheric phenomena include tropical cyclones, the Madden-Julian oscillation, and mesoscale lows associated with Baiu/Meiyu fronts. The emphasis is placed on the various mechanisms involved in the cooperative interaction between these phenomena and moist convection. The instability of the larger-scale due to this cooperative interaction is referred to as conditional instability of the second kind (CISK), and wave-CISK in the case of waves. Important factors that contribute to CISK include the latent and sensible heat supplied from the sea surface, the surface friction, the Coriolis force (in many cases), and others. The importance of examining the field of latent instability, which corresponds to positive buoyancy of the rising air (convective available potential energy, CAPE), is emphasized in studying the CISK phenomena. The behavior of mesoscale organized convection is also described with emphasis.
Keywords: Tropical cyclone, Madden-Julian oscillation, Mesoscale low, CISK, Wave-CISK, Latent instability, CAPE, Surface heat flux, Surface friction, Moist convection, Cumulus convection, Mesoscale convection, Cloud cluster, Cloud microphysics, Cumulus-convection-resolving model, Mesoscale-convection-resolving model.
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